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Electronic References & Scholarly Citations
of Internet Sources

Edited by Anita Greenhill (a.greenhill@umist.ac.uk) and Gordon Fletcher (g.fletcher@salford.ac.uk)

[Est.: 1 Nov 1995. Last revised: 13th January 2003. This facility is provided by spaceless.com, This document is a part of the Information Quality WWW Virtual Library Additions made with the last revision of this page are marked "***".]

The purpose of this document is to keep track of materials dealing with the emerging standards for electronic references and scholarly citations of Internet Sources in both paper and online publications. The links that are provided here constitute an edited selection from the full range of sites currently available on the Web. The sites that are included are considered to either:

Please mail a.greenhill@umist.ac.uk if you know of relevant document not listed here. Conversely, please notify the maintainers of this document if you feel that any of the URLs listed on this page are no longer good enough to be listed here. Your feedback will be gratefully appreciated.

If you have any commentaries, criticism or experiences regarding the citation of electronic source please contact Anita Greenhill to discuss hosting these observations here as part of this site.

Citation Guides
Josie.Tong@ualberta.ca Herbert T. Coutts Education and Physical Education Library,
University of Alberta
, Canada
16th September 2002
Last Update:
16th September 2002
Last Checked:
January 2003
Internet and electronic information, with no print equivalents, presents new challenges to scholars. Increasingly information is being published only in electronic formats, and questions about how to cite these sources in academic papers have become frequent at library reference desks.

Although a definitive standard for the citation of these resources has yet to emerge, there are now several printed guides and Internet sites which can provide guidance. This guide provides references to these sources. This guide is written for students at the University of Alberta and is not meant to be definitive. Comments are very welcome.

What is the title of a Web page? A study of Webography practice ***
Timothy C. Craven Information Research Vol. 7 No. 3, April 2002.
20th March 2002
Last Update:
20th March 2002
Last Checked:
January 2003
Few style guides recommend a specific source for citing the title of a Web page that is not a duplicate of a printed format. Sixteen Web bibliographies were analyzed for uses of two different recommended sources: (1) the tagged title; (2) the title as it would appear to be from viewing the beginning of the page in the browser (apparent title). In all sixteen, the proportion of tagged titles was much less than that of apparent titles, and only rarely did the bibliography title match the tagged title and not the apparent title. Convenience of copying may partly explain the preference for the apparent title. Contrary to expectation, correlation between proportion of valid links in a bibliography and proportion of accurately reproduced apparent titles was slightly negative.
Citing Electronic Sources
Library of Congress, USA
Authored: 1999 Last Update: 26th September 2002 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 23k
Since variation exists among accepted styles, and different disciplines rely on different style guidelines, it is not possible to give one example of documentation for the digitized materials available on the Library of Congress web site. The examples below use two style guidelines that are commonly used in history and language arts disciplines.
Comment citer un document électronique?
Rosaire Caron Bibliothèque de l'Université Laval, Canada
Authored: 18th February 1999 Last Update: 23rd August 2002 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 1k (index)
Guide for Citing Electronic Information
K Wagner Sarah Byrd Askew Library, William Paterson University of New Jersey
Authored: January 1999 Last Update: 1st September 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 8k
A cribsheet for citing various electronic resources.
Citing Electronic Sources of Information
U. of Sheffield Library, UK
Authored: 14th September 1998 Last Update: ? Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 14k
This guide sets out to provide examples of how to cite electronic sources of information in the Harvard style.
Referencing Electronic Sources
South Bank U., UK
Authored: 10th November 1998 Last Update: ? Last Checked: January 2003  
As an agreed and fixed standard for electronic references does not yet exist, this guide adapts the Harvard System which is currently used for books and journals. This guide is presented in printable PDF format.
Harvard Citation Guide
C. Scott Leed Metropolitan U., UK
Authored: June 1998
(Version 2)
Last Update: 22nd July 1998 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 19k
This is part of a larger work dealing with Harvard style referencing in general.
Citing Cyberspace
James D. Lester Austin Peay State University, USA
Last Update:
8th December 1998
Last Checked:
January 2003
File Size: 3k (index)
APA Style Electronic formats
Mary Ellen Guffey Westwords.com, USA
Authored: September 1997 Last Update: 25th October 2001 Last Checked: March 2001 File Size: 14k
These formats and examples are offered as models for references that might appear in the bibliography of a business writer's research paper.
Electronic Citation Guide for Legal Electonic materials.
Ruth Bohill ANU, Australia
Authored: July 1997 Archive date: 4th February 2001 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from archive
Citation style guide for Legal material that utilises the Australian Government referencing scheme.
Cómo citar recursos electrónicos (spanish version) & Com citar recursos electrònics (catalan version) ***
Assumpció Estivill & Cristóbal Urbano Escola Universitària Jordi Rubió i Balaguer de Biblioteconomia i Documentació, Spain
Authored: 30th May 1997 Last Update: 12th December 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 59k
De manera cada vez más frecuente los trabajos de investigación, informes, estados de la cuestión, etc., hacen referencia a documentos y otros recursos de información publicados en formato electrónico. A menudo las listas de referencias bibliográficas que forman parte de estos trabajos incluyen recursos electrónicos y documentos tradicionales libros, artículos de revista, grabaciones sonoras, etc. Así pues, cuando se cita un recurso electrónico no sólo es necesario que éste sea fácilmente identificable y recuperable a través de los datos bibliográficos reseñados, sino que, además, la referencia debe ser coherente con las de los otros documentos incluidos en la lista, es decir, todas deben seguir un modelo común
Citing Online Sources: MLA Style
Peggy Whitley Kingswood College, Texas, USA
Authored: Jan 1997 Archive date: ? Last Checked: January 2003 unavailable
Creating Models for Electronic Citations ***
Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger Ariadne: the Web Version, Issue 7, January 1997.
Authored: 15 Jan 1997 Last Update: 15 Jan 1997 Last Checked: January 2003  
In the fall of 1995 we first encountered the need to help our honors rhetoric students cite Internet sources. We remember well one students first attempt. In her works cited the student created an entry to list something she'd found on the World Wide Web. With elegant simplicity she wrote Internet (1995).
Citing Electronic Information in History Papers
Maurice Crouse Department of History, U of Memphis, USA
Authored: 5 Jan 1997 Last Update: 4th November 2002 (with modified style) Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 91k
New information media always present challenges to bibliographers, who must either adapt existing forms of documentation or devise new ones to maintain bibliographic control. The style guides that historians commonly use have not risen well to the challenge of electronic information -- information that has migrated to computer files. All the early guides failed to provide adequate means of citing it, giving sketchy treatment and few useful examples.
Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications
Library Contact Government Publications Department, Regional Depository Library, U of Memphis,USA
Authored: 18 Dec 1996 Last Update: 2nd June 1999 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 14k (part of)
A brief guide to citing US government material provided by the Government Publications Department of the Regional Depository Library
Citation of Legal and Non-legal Electronic Database Information
Candance Person State Bar of Michigan, USA
Authored: 21 Oct 1996 Last Update: 5th November 1999 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 28k
In the past four years, online legal and non-legal information has erupted on the many databases which make up the Internet. Information from around the world is now readily available at our fingertips. With enhanced access to worldwide networks of data bases, citation problems have also emerged. What format should we use to cite online cases and other materials? Various legal and other professional organizations have been addressing these questions for several years. Most of the proposed formats are still in the draft stages. This is probably because the online electronic database networks are changing daily, and new questions arise almost as quickly.
Citing Internet Sources
Keith Ivey Editorial Eye,USA
Authored: Aug 1996 Last Update: 5th February 1999 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 13k
Critical comparison of published methods

What is the proper way to cite a web source or article to be included in a text-only paper not intended for online publication? For example, how would you suggest I cite your article "Will Web Publishing Change the Way We Edit?" when I don't know the volume number, issue date, or page of The Editorial Eye in which it was originally published? The Web address doesn't provide much information to the reader who isn't connected.

Cite Them Right!
Graham Shields and Graham Walton Information Services Department, University of Northumbria, UK
Authored: 1 October 1996 Last Update: 30th September 1998 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 10k
A short crib sheet to reference different electronic material with the Li and Crane scheme.
International Standard ISO 690-2: Bibliographic references - Electronic documents or parts thereof
ISO Secretariat/Jane Thacker ISO/National Library of Canada,Canada
Authored: 21 May 1996 Last Update: 22nd August 2002 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 48k
Excerpts from the International Standards Organisation documentation.

This part of ISO 690 specifies the elements to be included in bibliographic references to electronic documents. It sets out a prescribed order for the elements of the reference and establishes conventions for the transcription and presentation of information derived from the source electronic document.

This part of ISO 690 is intended for use by authors and editors in the compilation of references to electronic documents for inclusion in a bibliography, and in the formulation of citations within the text corresponding to the entries in that bibliography. It does not apply to full bibliographic descriptions as required by librarians, descriptive and analytic bibliographers, indexers, etc.

Electronic Style
George Hoemann U of Tennessee at Knoxville,USA
Authored: 16 April 1996 Archive date: 13th October 1999 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive (images broken)
Comparison and discussion of the available citation methods.
Come citare i documenti elettronici
pregadio@unive.it http://helios.unive.it/~dsao/passi/home.html
Authored: 31st March 1996 Last Update: 24th September 1996 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 15k
Come per le opere stampate, per le quali si tende a utilizzare forme di citazione bibliografica che segnalino il maggior numero di dati sulle fonti, e siano inoltre utili al loro reperimento da parte dei lettori, così da qualche tempo si sta cercando di stabilire criteri per la citazione di materiali elettronici.
Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS)
Proposed standard for referencing online documents in scientific publications
T. Lands beadsland.com
Authored: March 1996 Last Update: 1st July 2001 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 17k
Proposed standard for referencing online documents in scientific publications
Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet
Andrew Harnack & Gene Kleppinger Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY
Authored: 1st March 1996 Last Update: 10th June 1996 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 50k
When a recent USA Today headline announces that scholars are struggling to maintain "standards in cyberspace" for the creation of footnotes (Varma), one realizes that the usual concerns of pedantic instructors teaching documented writing have reached interesting levels of national attention. When Writing Program Administrators receive phone calls from colleagues asking for help on how to cite locations on the Internet, one begins also to realize that instructors, students, and scholars, returning from cyberspace, are in fact grappling with new problems about crediting information sources located in webbed, digital environments. Indeed, as researchers in the humanities and arts find it necessary to document sources of information that appears flickeringly on a monitor's screen, perhaps "here today and gone tomorrow," the need for sound citation advice beyond that within the MLA Handbook is real.
Response to Harnack and Kleppinger's "Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet" ***
Janice R. Walker Department of English, University of South Florida, FL
Authored: 1996 Last Update: 1996 Last Checked: January 2002  
Andrew Harnack and Gene Kleppinger's "Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet" is a well-thought-out consideration of the styles being developed to address the problem of academic citation of Internet resources. As they point out, the newest edition of the MLA Handbook has neglected many important Internet sources and presented a citation format that is unacceptable to the computers and writing community.
A Brief Citation Guide For Internet Sources in History and the Humanities
Melvin E. Page H-Africa
Authored: 20 Feb 1996 Last Update: unavailable (Revision 2.1) Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 16k
"The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history and the humanities are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 5th ed. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987). It is also drawn from other works listed in the bibliography."
A Proposal for Referencing Internet Resources
Anita Greenhill & Gordon Fletcher Griffith U, Australia
Authored: Nov 1995 Last Update: 9th June 1997 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 33k
The proposed approach is based upon the referencing system provided by the Australian Government Publishing Service.
"The rapid growth of the Internet has outstripped conventions for citing material from that source. Distinguishing material as a [computer file] does not provide sufficient information about the platform necessary for reading it. The URL provides useful information, but augmenting it with other details such as author and date not only provides a meaningful citation, its similarity to conventional bibliographic notation lends a greater degree of legitimacy in academic discourse."
Anthropology-Style Citations of Electronic Sources
Robert Park Department of Anthropology, U. Waterloo, Canada
Authored: 27 Nov 1995 Archive Date: 2nd November 2001 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive
A style-sheet from the Department of Anthropology. A simplifed Harvard system
Citation Style for Internet Sources
Mark Wainwright Cambridge U,UK
Authored: May 1995 Archive Date: 18th April 1999 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive
"A question which comes up increasingly frequently is how to cite internet sources in an academic paper. The usual authorities are still entirely silent on this subject, so I propose the following (first published in `MLA citation style for internet documents?', article of: USENET newsgroup alt.usage.english (12 May 1995))."
Bibliographic Formats for Citing Electronic Information
Xia Li and Nancy Crane U. of Vermont, USA
Authored: May 1995 Archive date: 9th November 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive
The document follows the APA & MLA citation conventions and adds embellishments to represent the unique features of electronic information
Electronic Scholarly References - possible guidelines
Joseph Kozono Coombs Computing Unit, ANU, Australia
Authored: 16 February 1995 Archive date: 5th March 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive
An archived note from the buddha-l listserver.
MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources
Janice R.Walker Columbia University Press, USA
Authored: Jan 1995 Last Update: 18th November 2002 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 21k
A paper (endorsed by the Alliance for Computers & Writing). For a more complete discussion of citation formats for both humanities styles and author-date styles, including in-text citations and specific examples, see the Columbia Guide to Online Style by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor (in press).
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
Ian Graham Information Commons, University of Toronto
Authored: 4 December 1995 Last Update: 5th January 1998 Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 6k
URLs, or Uniform Resource Locators, are the method by which documents or data are addressed in the World Wide Web.
Electronic Scholarly References - possible guidelines
Tim Tenbensel Coombs Computing Unit, ANU, Australia
Authored: 18 Nov 1994 Archive Date: 19th April 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from web archive
A note archived from the austral-polsci-l discussion group
How do you cite URL's in a bibliography?
webmaster@nrlssc.navy.mil Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center, USA
Authored: 26th August 1994 Last Update: 24th April 2000 Last Checked: January 2003 extracted from the web archive
These are the current biomedical paper references on the topic...
Bibliographic Referencies for Computer Files in the Social Sciences: A Discussion Paper
Sue A. Dodd Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, U of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,USA
Authored: May 1990 Last Update: ? Last Checked: January 2003 File Size: 18k
A recent discussion among the participants of the E-Mail "Informal List for Official Representatives of ICPSR" centered around citing computer files in references, footnotes, and bibliographies; whether to cite a codebook or file (providing you have both); and a discussion on citing primary or secondary sources. With respect to the last two concerns, there appeared to be adequate response indicating that it is better to cite the file as opposed to the codebook, and that one generally cites primary data sources. However, the first concern required more information and the ICPSR OR meeting was targeted as the next opportunity for such a discussion. Note: this paper was first presented at the ICPSR OR Annual Meeting in November 1989, but has been revised for the May-June 1990 IASSIST meeting in Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

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